Ethical Hacking Lessons — Building Free Active Directory Lab in Azure
The majority of IT experts concur that Active Directory is the dominant approach for managing the Windows domain networks. This is why adversaries get attracted to discover and exploit vulnerabilities within the Active Directory echo system. In order to defend against those types of attacks, there is a need for practice grounds where Pen Testers, Security Researchers and Ethical hackers can practice offensive and defensive methodologies.
This article is inspired by TheCyberMentor’s How to Build an Active Directory Hacking Lab video where he builds a local Active Directory lab for ethical hacking purposes. My personal preference is to use a cloud-based infrastructure wherever possible. I, therefore, decided to look into building a similar low-cost lab (free in this case) in Azure while following his videos. This article basically follows steps from How to Build an Active Directory Hacking Lab video but in a Windows Azure environment.
First Things First
It is important to note that some of the practices used during the creation of this lab are intentionally weak to better just to describe the possible attack vectors. You should do the necessary research before using any practices described here into your production or any other network(s).
Its highly unlikely that you have not heard about the Microsoft Cloud platform — Azure. This article by no means is an intro to Azure. There are plenty of resources available if you want to learn it.
Microsoft offers a free Azure trial that includes free access to popular Azure products for 12 months, $200 credit to spend for the first 30 days of sign up, and access to more than 25 products that are always free.
Let’s set up an account to take advantage of these free services and create this Active Directory lab.
Let’s click on the Start Free button. If you have an existing Microsoft account, you can log in through the page shown below.
Otherwise, you will have to signup for an account.
Note that the signup process requires to provide user’s phone number and credit card information. The credit card is not charged unless the user decides to upgrade to a service such as Pay-As-You-Go. I found the FAQ for the free Azure services quite informative and useful.
Let’s assume that we have signed up for the free Azure service. Let’s proceed with the Active Directory lab setup. In your favorite browser, go to Azure portal and login to your account.
Resource Group Creation
Let’s start by creating a dedicated Resource Group for all the lab related resources. A Resource group acts as a container to hold all the related resources for an Azure solution.
Click on Resource Groups under the Left navigation menu as shown below.
The resource group list is empty. Let’s click on the Create resource group button as shown below.
You will be presented with a form like the following. Let’s name this Resource group as ADLab. I chose Canada Central as the Region. You can choose whatever region that makes sense for your geography. Then click on the Review + create button.
Necessary validation will be performed and its result will be shown. Its a success in our case. Click on the Create button to complete the resource group creation process.
The newly created Resource group now shows up in the list.
Virtual Network Creation
The next step is to create a Virtual Network that will enable Azure resources ( such as Virtual Machines) to securely communicate within the network or outside networks. In order to do that, click on the Virtual networks in the navigation menu.
Next, click on the Create virtual network button.
Fill in the fields related to Creating that virtual Network. I used ADLabNet as the name of the virtual network. Further, I also used 10.0.1.0/24 as the address space and subnet address range. Make sure, you select the resource group ADLab that we created earlier. For the rest of the fields, I just used default values. Finally, click on the Create button.
That’s it with Virtual Network creation. It should show up in the list as shown below.
Creation of Domain Controller (DC) machine consists of few steps including creation of Virtual machine, making necessary configuring changes, promoting machine as DC, etc. Let’s go over all these steps one by one.
Virtual Machine Creation
Let’s start with the creation of the first Virtual Machine. This will be our Active Directory Domain Controller. I am going to use a Windows Server 2019 image for it. First of all, click on the Virtual machines menu item.
No virtual machines yet on this list. Just click on the Create virtual machine button.
You will be presented with the following page. Make sure you select the ADLab resource group created earlier. Let’s name the virtual machine HYDRA-DC. Click on the Browse all public and private images link to select the right image for our VM.
Click on the Compute item under the Marketplace tab and choose the Windows Server 2019 Datacenter image.
Now that the appropriate image is selected, from the Create Virtual Machine page, click on the Change size link. I am going to use the B1ms for this machine as shown below.
Now, we need to create an Administrator account. I used kamran as the username and Password1234 as the password. Definitely not a strong password for an administrator account. Click on Next: Disks button.
I chose Standard HDD OS disk type here. You can certainly go with the Premium SSD also but for the purpose of this lab, the Standard HDD is good enough. Click on Next: Networking button.
In the Networking tab, make sure the Virtual network is set to ADLabNet that we created earlier. For the rest of the steps, we just accept all the defaults and click on Review + create button.
Once getting the successful validation, click on the Create button to create the Virtual Machine.
It will take a few minutes but if everything goes well, you should see a message stating that deployment is completed as shown below. You can click on the Go to resource button to navigate to the page for this newly created Virtual machine.
You can click on the Connect button to see various options for connecting to this machine.
Let’s choose RDP and download the appropriate file for connecting to the VM.
You should be able to login using the username kamran and password Password1234 that we set up earlier in the process. After RDP into this box, you will see a Desktop like the following.
I like to have a little bit more information about the machine on the desktop. This is even more important when you are working against multiple computers. I typically use BgInfo utility that setups your desktop background with an image with some useful information such as IP address, machine name/domain, Username, etc. as shown below.
Now that we are connected to the machine, its time to configure it as a Domain Controller. Let’s launch the Server Manager and click on Add roles and features option.
This will start the Add Roles and Features Wizard. The first tab Before you begin simply provides some information about the wizard and a few suggestions about tasks that should be completed before continuing with this wizard. Make sure you read and understand it and then click Next.
On the next tab Installation Type, we just choose Role-based or feature-based installation option and click Next.
On the next tab Server Selection, we can just choose Next.
On the Server Roles tab, check the “Active Directory Domain Service” checkbox.
This will bring up following dialog where you simply confirm that you are ok installing other features that Active Directory Domain Services (ADDS) will have to install as well. Click on Add Features button.
You can click Next on the Features tab.
You can click Next on the AD DS tab.
Click Install on the Confirmation tab.
This will start the installation and show you the progress.
Once the installation is complete, you can just click the Close button.
At this point, it will show you a warning flag as shown in the image below. Clicking on the flag will show you the link for Promote this server to a domain controller. Click on that link.
Promote VM to Domain Controller
Clicking on the Promote this server to a domain controller link will launch Active Directory Domain Service Configuration Wizard. The first tab Deployment Configuration shows various deployment operations. Let’s Choose Add a new forest option here.
Enter MARVEL.local as the domain name and click Next.
On the Domain Controller Options tab, enter a password for DSRM and click Next.
Click Next on DNS Options tab.
The NetBIOS domain name should populate automatically. Click Next.
Accept all the defaults on the Paths tab and just click Next.
Review the options and click Next.
On the final step, click Install button.
It will take a few minutes for this installation to complete. This will cause a reboot of the machine as well. After that, you can log in with the domain credentials.
The desktop background image showing that we log in to the newly created MARVEL domain.
Configuring Certificate Services
The next step is to setup Certificate Services. Let’s launch the Server Manager again and click on the Add roles and features.
This will launch the Add Roles and Features Wizard that we used before too. Just keep clicking Next until you are on the Server Roles tab. Check the Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS) here.
That will pop-up the following dialog with the information about the required features for ADCS. Click on Add Features button.
Click on the Next button.
Click on the AD CS tab.
Check the Certification Authority checkbox and click Next.
On the Confirmation tab, check the Restart the destination server automatically if required checkbox. This will prompt a confirmation dialog. Select Yes and then click on Next.
This will start the installation process for ADCS and the required components.
At this point, you will see a warning flag. Click on that flag and then click on the link for Configure Active Directory Certificate Services on the destination server.
This will launch the AD CS Configuration wizard. Click next on the Credentials tab.
On the Role Services tab, check the Certification Authority check box and click Next.
Make sure to select Enterprise CA on the Setup Type tab and click Next.
Make sure to select Root CA on the CA Type tab and click Next.
Select Create a new private key on the Private Key tab and click Next.
Stick with the default options on the Cryptography tab and click Next.
Stick with all the default names of CA Name tab and click Next.
On the Validity Period, change it 99 years and click Next.
Stick with the default database and log location and click Next.
Click the Configure button on the Confirmation tab.
Shortly after you will see the message about Configuration succeeded. You can close this dialog now.
Restart the VM now so the changes take effect.
Setting up a Share
Create a folder hackme on the C drive.
Launch the Server Manager and click on the File and Storage Services tab.
Click on the Shares as shown below.
Click on the New Share menu item under Tasks as shown below.
This will launch the New Share Wizard. Make sure SMB Share — Quick File share profile is selected and click Next.
Select Type a Custom path option and enter c:\hackme folder path and click Next.
Stick with hackme as the Share name and click Next.
Stick with the defaults on the Other Settings tab and click Next.
Stick with the defaults on the Permissions tab and click Next.
Click on the Create button on the Confirmation tab.
Shortly after you will see the message about share created successfully. You can close this dialog now.
Creating Domain Users
Let’s create a few domain users now. Launch the Server Manager and click on the Active Directory Users and Computers menu option as shown below.
This will launch the Active Directory Users and Computer application as shown below. Its shown the MARVEL.local domain.
Click on the Users node. Let’s clean up the entries here a little for ease of management.
Right-click on MARVEL.local node and select menu option for creating a new Organization Unit (OU) as shown below.
Following dialog will be prompted. Let’s name this OU as Groups.
With the exception of Guest and kamran users, let’s move all others into the newly created Groups OU by drag & drop. The Users node should look as follows after that.
Right-click and select the option for creating a new user.
Let’s create the first user with First name Frank, Last name Castle and logon name as fcastle as shown below. Click on Next.
I used a kind of weak password Password1. Uncheck User must change password at next logon and check the option for Password next expires. Click Next.
Click Finish here.
Repeat same steps to create another user with First name Peter, Last name Parker and logon name as pparker as shown below. I used the same password Password1 for this user as well.
Finally, create a domain-admin type user. For that, we just copy the existing admin user kamran by right-clicking on its username and click on the Copy… menu option as shown below.
Let’s give this user first name SQL, last name Service and logon name of SQLService. Click Next then.
Let’s set the password for this user as MYpassword123# with settings as shown below. Click Next then.
Click Finish here.
Go back on the properties for SQLService user and set Description as Password is MYpassword123# as shown below.
We can run setspn again to confirm the domain for existing SPN as shown below.
This basically completes the creation of domain users and required configuration. As of now, no computers have joined the domain.
Important to note the IP address of the domain machine as this will be used when joining user computers to the domain.
Setting up first User Machine
Let’s start setting up our first user machine. Under the Virtual machines page, click on the Add button.
Enter all the information about this virtual machine. Here are the key points.
- Select ADLab as Resource Group
- Set machine name as ThePunisher
- Choose Windows 10 Enterprise Version 1909 image.
- Choose Standard B1s machine size
- Name username as fcastle. Give it a weak password. I use myPassword01
Choose Standard HDD for this VM as well.
Make sure this VM is also using the ADLabNet Virtual network. For the rest of the options, just use defaults and click on the Review + create button.
You should see a message about validations succeeded. Click on Create button here.
Shortly after you see the message that deployment is complete. You can just click on the Go to resource button to view the newly created VM.
Remote Desktop into this box using the local user account we just setup fcastle (password myPassword01). Launch File Explorer and click on the Network node. You will be prompted with a message box stating Network Discovery is turned off. Click OK here.
Click on the message below to change the Network discovery and file sharing settings.
Click on Turn on network discovery and file sharing option.
You will be prompted with the following options. Click on the first one.
Use the Sysinternals’s BgInfo utility on this box as well just like we did for the domain controller earlier.
Setting up the second User Machine
The steps for creating the second User-machine are exactly the same as for the first user machine. This is also a Windows 10 Enterprise version 1909 image. I created this VM with the name Spiderman. For this machine, the username is pparker with another weak password of myPassword02. Repeat all the steps including those for turning on Network discovery and setting up BgInfo utility. This machine should look as follows. Some info may be different (such as IP address depending upon the setting you used etc.).
At this point, if we browse to the Virtual Machines page in the Azure portal, it should look as follows.
User Machines Join Domain
Now its time to have these machines join the domain. I will show the steps for ThePunisher. The same steps will have to be done on the other user machine Spiderman.
While in ThePunisher machine, right-click on the Network icon in the system tray. You will see two options here. Click on the Open Network & Internet Settings as shown below.
This will open the Settings dialog. Click on the Ethernet item in left navigation as shown below.
Click on the Change adapter options.
This will bring up the Network Connection dialog showing the Ethernet connection.
Right-click on the Ethernet and click on the properties menu item.
Select the IP4 from the list and click properties.
This is where we use the IP address of the domain controller (10.0.1.4 in my case) as the DNS address for this machine.
Click OK and close this dialog. At this point, my RDP connection to the VM was lost. I had to restart the VM from Azure portal and log back into the VM using the same local user account.
Find the Access work or school system setting and launch it.
Click Connect here.
From the next dialog, click the link for Join this device to a local Active Directory domain.
Following dialog will be prompted. Enter MARVEL.local as the domain name and click on Next.
You will be prompted to enter the credentials for domain admin. In my case its kamran with password Password1234.
Click on the Skip on the next dialog.
Finally choose to Restart now.
Now repeat the same steps for the other user machine Spiderman to have it join the domain.
At this point, if we login to the Domain Controller, we should see both the user computers listed under the MARVEL.local domain as shown below.
Configuring Domain Users to User-Machines
We have created domain users but not yet set up these against any user machines yet. Let’s login to the ThePunsiher first as a domain administrator to do that.
Go to Computer Management -> Groups -> Administrators and double click.
It will show existing users in this group. Click Add here.
Find Frank Castle domain user and click on OK button.
This will add that user as local Administrator.
Repeat the same steps for domain user Petre Parker.
Let’s login to the spiderman machine as a domain administrator and add the Marvel\pparker as the local admin.
Our Domain setup is all complete now. Last thing to do it add a Kali Linux machine here too.
Setting up Kali Linux
Log in to the Azure Portal, browse to Virtual machines section and click on Add button.
Setup the virtual machine with the setting shown below.
Important thing to note is that there is a Kali Linux image available in the market place that we can use.
Use the Standard HDD disk.
Use the existing Virtual network ADLabNet.
Following the rest of the steps we should have a Kali Linux virtual machine.
I use putty to connect to the Kali machine using SSH.
Once I logged in, I ran netdiscover utility to find the machines.
Its results, as expected, came back with the IP addresses of the domain controller and two user machines.
Nmap scan against the domain controller is shown below.
Nmap scan for the two user machines is shown below.
Until next, happy ethical hacking!!!